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By Alan Cruse

This easy-to-use consultant illuminates key ideas and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the research of which means because it is conveyed via language.

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But so do many other creatures, so this feature does not single out the category of birds. On the other hand, only birds have feathers, so the possession of feathers is diagnostic for the category of birds (this feature is also typical). Both diagnosticity and typicality vary in degree. The possession of feathers is both maxi- 793 02 pages 001-202 31/3/06 10:19 Page 47 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS 47 mally diagnostic and maximally typical. But having two legs, while diagnostic to some degree since most creatures have more than two legs, is not maximally diagnostic because it is shared with, for instance, humans.

The basic idea is that metaphor is essentially a relation between conceptual domains, whereby ways of talking about one domain (the ‘source domain’) can be applied to another domain (the ‘target domain’) by virtue of ‘correspondences’ between the two. Typically, the source domain is relatively familiar and conceptually well-structured, and the structures are used to articulate the target domain. In the case of wellestablished metaphors, the correspondences are held to be permanently laid down in the cognitive system.

In everyday language (often used in the plural) it means little more than ‘associations’: For many Americans, the term ‘liberal’ has negative connotations. 2. In a more technical use it refers to non-truth-conditional aspects of meaning. These may involve expressive features, such as the derogatory nature of hovel or slum, or register allegiance, such as the difference in formality between pass away and kick the bucket. They may also be features which are characteristic, but not logically necessary, like the barking of dogs.

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