By Ricardo Garcia
Filling a niche within the literature, this e-book gains in-depth discussions on amplitude modulation AFM, offering an summary of the speculation, instrumental issues and functions of the method in either academia and undefined. As such, it comprises examples from fabric technological know-how, gentle condensed topic, molecular biology, and biophysics, between others. The textual content is written in this sort of manner as to allow readers from diverse backgrounds and degrees of craftsmanship to discover the data appropriate for his or her wishes.
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Extra info for Amplitude Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy
The transient term oscillates with a frequency vr that should be considered the new resonant frequency. The damping a modiﬁes the resonant frequency of the harmonic oscillator. 6 shows that there are substantial differences between the actual and the natural resonant frequencies, otherwise, vr % v0. The dependence of the amplitude with the excitation frequency follows the Lorentzian expression, AðvÞ ¼ h ðv20 F0 =m v2 Þ2 þ ðvv0 =QÞ2 i1=2 ð4:7Þ and the phase shift can be calculated by tan w ¼ vv0 =Q ; v20 v2 ð4:8Þ where w is the angle by which the driving force leads the displacement.
This could imply that the force acting on the sample surface not only is due to the atoms or molecules at the tips apex but also bears the inﬂuence of the atoms in the shank of the tip or even in the body of the cantilever. The electrostatic force between two surfaces can be calculated by knowing the electrostatic energy. This is given by U ¼ C(V Vc)2/2, where C is the capacitance of the system and V the external applied voltage. Then, the electrostatic force is given by Fe ¼ 1 dC ðV 2 dz Vc Þ2 : ð3:24Þ The problem of calculating the electrostatic force is to determine the capacitance of the system for a realistic situation.
1 Optical Sensitivity The output of the photodiode detector is a photocurrent that is eventually trans formed into an output voltage. To measure deﬂections and amplitudes in units of length, we require to determine the conversion factor between volts and nanometers. A commonly used sensitivity calibration method starts with the determination of sensitivity in the static case and then using the theoretical expressions that relate the sensitivities of the different cantilever eigenmodes to static sensitivity.