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We have tried to introduce the metaphysical subject as that which thinks, but there is no need for such a thing. A thought is an object which corresponds or fails to correspond to another object; all is static and self-contained, and there is nothing for a subject to do. (iii) Knowing (cj. 634) Knowledge, in the Tractatus, is acquaintance with the world. This acquaintance is not necessarily visual, its precise nature cannot be determined a priori, nevertheless there is a strong analogy between knowing and seeing: the knowing I is like the seeing eye.

But now the question is this: on what grounds should it be supposed that there are two things here, what is known and what knows? 633: Where in the world is a metaphysical subject to be found? You will say that this is exactly like the case of the eye and the visual field. But really you do not see the eye. And nothing in the visual field allows you to infer that it is seen by an eye. The I which is acquainted with the world is not itself part of the world, but then neither can its existence as something outside be inferred.

If deducibility is mutual between two propositions, the propositions are identical. No elementary proposition can be deduced from another, for it is essentially the complexity of distinct propositions which is responsible for their logical relations. ( ii) Induction and cause ( cJ. 13's and 6-37' s) Reason must guarantee the truth of propositions, and a clear case of such a guarantee is found in the deductive relation. It can be seen that deductive reasoning does not in fact extend knowledge, for we can only reason to what we knew already, since the conclusion of the inference is already contained in the premise.

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