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By Jessica Brown, Herman Cappelen

Statement is a primary characteristic of language. This quantity could be the position to appear for a person attracted to present paintings at the subject. Philosophers of language and epistemologists sign up for forces to explain what sort of speech act statement is, relatively in gentle of relativist perspectives of fact, and the way statement is ruled through epistemic norms.

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On such views, a saying is an assertion just in case it is accompanied by the relevant set of commitments—for a speaker to assert is for that speaker to undertake the right kinds of commitments. (iv) Assertion Individuated by Cause Other theorists take assertions to be the sayings that have certain causes. Bach and Harnish (1979: 42) exemplify this approach. They say that a speaker, S, in uttering u, asserts that P if S expresses: (i) the belief that P, and (ii) the intention that the hearer believe that P.

2000). Knowledge and its Limits. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Notes: (1) Typically, the focus is on the saying of declarative sentences. ” (2) For an overview of various theories, see Cappelen (this volume), MacFarlane (this volume). (3) For example, Pagin's and Kölbel's proposals in this volume do not fall neatly into one of these categories, but combine elements. (4) This is from MacFarlane (2005): MacFarlane ultimately endorses more complex characterizations of the commitments. These are just the starting points for his discussion and are included here for illustrative purposes.

Although the knowledge norm for assertion and practical reasoning has been used to defend shifty views, many authors question the knowledge norm for assertion or practical reasoning in one or both directions. A number of authors have objected to the necessity direction of the knowledge norm for assertion. g. Douven 2006; Lackey 2007; Kvanvig 2009). g. Davis2007; Levin 2008; Brown forthcoming). Objections have also been raised to both directions of the knowledge norm for practical reasoning (see Hill and Schechter 2007; Brown 2008; Neta 2009; Reed forthcoming).

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