By Riemer H.J.A. Slart, René A. Tio, Philip H. Elsinga, Markus Schwaiger
This e-book explains intimately the capability worth of the hybrid modalities, SPECT-CT and PET-CT, within the imaging of cardiac innervation in quite a lot of stipulations and illnesses, together with ischemic middle affliction, diabetes mellitus, middle failure, amyloidosis, center transplantation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Imaging of the brain-heart axis in neurodegenerative illness and rigidity and of cardiotoxicity is additionally mentioned. the jobs of many of the on hand tracers are absolutely thought of, and person chapters handle radiopharmaceutical improvement below GMP, imaging physics, and kinetic modeling software program. hugely proper heritage details is integrated at the autonomic anxious approach of the center and its pathophysiology, and likewise destiny views are mentioned.
Awareness of the significance of autonomic innervation of the center for the optimum administration of cardiac sufferers is turning out to be, and there's an obtrusive want for target size options or imaging modalities. during this context, Autonomic Innervation of the guts will be of large curiosity to clinicians, researchers, and industry.
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Additional resources for Autonomic Innervation of the Heart: Role of Molecular Imaging
High frequencies are thought to represent the parasympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system, whereas low frequencies are mediated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and are affected by BRS. Verylow frequencies are influenced by many factors including the renin–angiotensin system and thermoregulation. This measurement is limited by its inherent use of sinus node innervation as a surrogate for ventricular parasympathetic innervation. In dog models of MI, Hull et al.
Furthermore, BRS in some studies has been a stronger predictor of ventricular tachyarrhythmias than HRV, suggesting that measurements of the dynamic nature of the parasympathetic system may provide superior prognostic information. The underlying mechanisms of the protective effects of the parasympathetic nervous system are not well understood. Loss of vagal innervation, similar to sympathetic innervation, occurs as early as 5–20 min after coronary occlusion. Vigorous vagal activation during acute myocardial ischaemia has been shown to be protective against ventricular fibrillation in anaesthetised cats.
However, with the increasing recognition of anatomic and functional relationships between the nervous system and the heart, also comes a litany of new questions. Specifically, studies to date have revealed the large degree of complexity. Furthermore, the clinical correlation of ex vivo cell-based and isolated perfusion models of the heart has been limited due to anatomic accessibility in recording simultaneous neuronal and cardiac electrophysiologic activity during in vivo electrophysiology studies.