By Pierluigi Barbaro, Claudio Bianchini
This primary e-book to target the subject serves as a foundation for outlining a roadmap for the position of catalysis in strength creation. As such, this prepared reference for researchers and engineers covers all of the scorching issues from a wide point of view -- gas cells, hydrogen construction and garage, methane garage and business catalysis. With its research of recent instructions and possibilities within the zone and its integration of commercial, governmental and educational issues of view, this can be a genuine must-have for everybody drawn to "greener" power construction.
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Additional info for Catalysis for Sustainable Energy Production
This conﬁrms the difﬁculty of oxidizing ethanol at low temperatures and the necessity to work at temperatures higher than 100 C to enhance the electrode kinetics and, thus, the performance of the DEFC. 14 Fuel cell characteristics of a 25 cm2 DEFC recorded with a 30% Pt–Sn (90 : 10) catalyst. Influence of the working temperature. 5 mg cmÀ2 [30% Pt–Sn (90 : 10)/XC72]; cathode catalyst, 2 mg cmÀ2 (40% Pt/XC72 from E-TEK); membrane, Nafion 117; ethanol concentration, 1 M. ) 100 C; (^) 110 C.
The effect of tin, in addition to the activation of water molecules, may be related to some electronic effects (ligand effects) on the CO oxidation reaction . On Pt–Sn, assuming that ethanol adsorbs only on platinum sites, the ﬁrst step can be the same as for platinum alone. 4 V vs RHE. Hence it can be stated that the same reactions occur at lower potentials and with relatively rapid kinetics. 3 V vs RHE, as conﬁrmed by CO stripping experiments, because OH species are formed on tin at lower potentials [39, 40]: Sn þ H2 O !
The superior performance of these binary and ternary electrocatalysts for the oxidation of ethanol, compared with Pt alone, is attributed to the bifunctional mechanism  and to the electronic interaction between Pt and the alloying metals . Matsuoka et al.  studied the electro-oxidation of different alcohols and polyols for direct alkaline fuel cell applications using an AEM (from Tokumaya, Japan) functionalized with tetraalkylammonium groups as cationic groups (thickness ¼ 240 mm). They obtained the best performance with ethylene glycol, achieving a maximum power density close to 10 mW cmÀ2 with a Pt–Ru catalyst at the anode.