By Thorsten M. Buzug
This quantity offers an summary of X-ray know-how and the historic improvement of recent CT structures. the main target of the e-book is an in depth derivation of reconstruction algorithms in second and sleek 3D cone-beam platforms. a radical research of CT artifacts and a dialogue of sensible matters equivalent to dose issues supply additional perception into present CT structures. even if written often for graduate scholars, practitioners also will take advantage of this book.
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Extra info for Computer Tomography - From Photon Statistics to Modern Cone-Beam CT
Slight deviations from a homogeneous beam proﬁle can be compensated for by specially formed ﬁlters mounted on the X-ray tube and by detector calibration. The next paragraphs give a brief explanation of the physical mechanism that leads to inhomogeneous object illumination. Generally, two eﬀects are responsible for a directional characteristic of the effective X-ray beam. As discussed above, bremsstrahlung is produced by dipole radiation that shows the speciﬁc Hertzian antenna characteristic. Fast electrons accelerated with Ua = kV have a velocity of roughly % of the speed of light, meaning that relativistic eﬀects emerge.
2 Fundamentals of X-ray Physics Fig. . a Due to Compton scattering the patient becomes a source of radiation and organs outside the region of examination are subjected to X-rays as well. Radiation protection must be designed on the basis of scatter diagrams, b and c, for a particular CT system The discussion of the mass attenuation coeﬃcient with respect to issues of radiation protection shows how important it is to know the physical mechanisms of X-ray photon attenuation. The physical principles of attenuation are diﬀerent for diverse biomaterials.
However, on the other hand, the spatial distribution of the attenuation coeﬃcient μ is the main focus of diagnostic interest. The gray-value diﬀerences in CT images represent distinct material composites and densities of the organs. The normal CT image shall be seen as standard, as radiologists learn, and any variation of that standard is potentially pathologic. 2 Fundamentals of X-ray Physics Fig. . Mass attenuation coeﬃcient, μ ρ, versus incident photon energy for platinum (top) and gold (bottom).