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By Gary L. Johnson

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This average value should be used only if site specific data is not available, because of the wide range of values that α can assume. Wind Energy Systems by Dr. Gary L. Johnson October 10, 2006 Chapter 2—Wind Characteristics 6 2–26 WIND-SPEED STATISTICS The speed of the wind is continuously changing, making it desirable to describe the wind by statistical methods. We shall pause here to examine a few of the basic concepts of probability and statistics, leaving a more detailed treatment to the many books written on the subject.

Low ❅ ■ ❅ f ✛ ✲ fg ✲ fc Figure 3: Wind forces in a low-pressure area ................................................ ....... ..... . . .... ... . ... ... .. . .. .. ... .. ... .. .. c .. .. . . . .. .. .. ... .. . .. .... .... .... ..... . . .......... ............................................. High f ✛ ❅ ❘ ❅ u ✲ fp ✲ fg Figure 4: Wind forces in a high-pressure area wind” applies only to a wind flowing in the vicinity of nearly straight isobars.

3K We see from this example that a parcel of air which undergoes an upward displacement experiences a temperature decrease of about 1o C/100 m in an adiabatic process. This quantity is referred to as the adiabatic lapse rate, the dry- adiabatic lapse rate, or the temperature gradient. It is an ideal quantity, and does not vary with actual atmospheric parameters. 01oC/m. The quantity z − zg is the altitude above ground level. The actual temperature decrease with height will normally be different from the adiabatic prediction, due to mechanical mixing of the atmosphere.

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